Trieste origins are ancient and go back to the second millennium b. C. During the year 50 b. C. the small fishermen’s village became a roman colony and was enriched by important constructions, whose rests are still visible. In 1328 it established a long and productive relationship with the Habsburg dynasty, while the 19th century was the most prosperous and fortunate period: big insurance groups and shipping lines were founded actually during this time, the Stock Exchange developed and the art and cultural production grew. Thanks to this growth the town became one of the most important centres of the Habsburg Empire, representing the only access to sea. Trieste returned to Italy in 1918, but from this moment Trieste started to play a secondary role; the Second World War caused the loss of the Istrian peninsula and a negative period began, characterized by lots of dramatic events. Only in 1954, with the signature of the "London Memorandum", Trieste and its hinterland were definitively given back to Italy.
The city and its monuments
The see worthy places in and outside the town are many: Victory Lighthouse, Giant Cave, Duino and Miramare Castle, San Giusto Castle just to name some places. The white “Victory Lighthouse” illuminates the Gulf of Trieste, is a war memorial for soldiers died on the sea during the First World War. The Giant Cave is the biggest world cave open for visits, features a great variety of stalactites and stalagmites and a great calcite concentrations on the walls. Duino Castle rises in a picturesque and panoramic position, on a karst rocky headland steeply over the sea and enjoys a beautiful view over the gulf of Trieste. At the end, while Miramare Castle is called the "white fabulous castle", encircled by a green and luxuriant park viewing the deep blue sea moved by wind, San Giusto Castle is situated on the top of the homonymous hill, near the roman ruins of Forum and Basilica; not to be missed is the sight of the town from the town walls, from the bastions and from the communication trenches.
The geographical area
Trieste and its surroundings feature lots of monuments and places, but the main characteristic are the karst hills with white cliffs, descending steeply to the sea and creating small shores and wonderful bays.